How to prevent seasonal influenza?


Now it is the alternating season of summer and autumn, the weather is cooler, and the temperature difference between day and night is gradually widening. Every time at this time, it is inevitable that some people will not adapt to this climate change, prone to colds, especially people with weak bodies and low autoimmunity, if not treated in time, it is easy to cause tonsillitis, tracheitis and other diseases. Therefore, it is especially important to prevent the occurrence of colds at this time.

The body's immune system does not adapt to climate change, resulting in frequent colds

Summer and autumn alternate, people are more likely to catch a cold because autumn is a stage of the transition from summer to winter, it is also an inevitable stage of the weather from hot to cold, in this stage, with the obvious changes in air temperature, humidity, air pressure and other factors, once the human body's immune system has not adapted to this change it is easy to catch a cold. And a feature of the autumn climate is the large temperature difference between day and night, especially when it has just entered autumn, the temperature at noon is relatively hot, and the temperature at night is low, many people ignore the characteristics of this season, so it is easy to get cold at night. In addition, many people do not have a very good appetite in the hot autumn weather, and sweating leads to a large loss of water in the body, resulting in reduced immunity, which is also an important reason for susceptibility to colds.

The cold in daily life refers to the 'common cold', also known as 'cold', 'acute rhinitis' or 'upper respiratory tract infection'. Cold is a common acute upper respiratory viral infection, mostly caused by rhinovirus, parainfluenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, echovirus, coxsackievirus, coronavirus, adenovirus, etc. Most of them are scattered, and they occur frequently in the turn of seasons and in winter and spring. The onset of cold is more acute, the incubation period is 1~3 days, mainly manifested as nasal symptoms, such as sneezing, nasal congestion, watery nasal discharge, can also be manifested as cough, dry throat, itchy throat, sore throat or burning sensation, and even postnasal drip sensation. After 2~3 days, the nasal discharge becomes thicker, often accompanied by sore throat, tearing, loss of taste, poor breathing, hoarseness, etc. There is usually no fever and constitutional symptoms, or only low-grade fever, malaise, mild chills, and headache. Colds are self-limited, and it generally takes 5~7 days from the onset of symptoms to recovery.

Taking antibiotics as soon as you catch a cold can easily lead to the development of drug resistance in germs

There are many opinions on how to treat colds: antibiotics, vitamin C, drink more hot water... In the past, there was a lack of medical care and medicine, and people used more rest and drinking more hot water to treat colds. Now, many people's first reaction after catching a cold is to take cold medicine. Is it necessary to take cold medicine when you have a cold?

The most common symptoms of a cold are fever, cough, pain (headache, muscle pain, sore throat, etc.), allergic symptoms (runny nose, nasal congestion, sneezing, etc.), and malaise. Compound cold medicines are often a combination of multiple components that specifically treat the above symptoms: acetaminophen or ibuprofen are used to reduce fever and relieve pain; chlorpheniramine, cetirizine against runny nose and sneezing; pseudoephedrine relief, nasal congestion symptoms; Dextromethorphan for the treatment of cough; Caffeine relieves malaise and drowsiness. For example, phenephemamine tablets are indicated for patients with fever, pain, nasal congestion, cough or runny nose. If there is only fever and headache, acetaminophen or ibuprofen can be directly chosen. Cold medicine can only improve cold symptoms, can not anti-virus, does not shorten the course of treatment, and treats the symptoms but not the root cause. Colds are caused by viruses, and antibacterial drugs (antibiotics or "anti-inflammatories") are ineffective against viruses, so taking antibiotics as soon as you catch a cold is not only ineffective, but also easy to lead to drug resistance

Colds can indeed lead to a decrease in the body's immunity and will cause some bacterial infections secondarily. For example, someone can get tonsillitis or sinusitis as soon as they catch a cold. In this regard, some antibacterial drugs can be used prophylactically under the guidance of a doctor, but you must not use antibiotics indiscriminately. In addition, children aged 2~6 years old should avoid using cold medicine as much as possible, and children over 6 years old can use it with caution under the guidance of a doctor. The most common way to deal with colds in children is to accompany and cuddle and drink plenty of water or juice. If your nasal congestion and nasal passages are dry, you can moisten it frequently with a wet swab, clean your nasal passages, or use a humidifier. If the fever reaches a temperature above 38°C, physical cooling (such as a warm bath) or acetaminophen or ibuprofen antipyretic treatment should be given promptly.

In addition, at present, there is no medical evidence that vitamin C can prevent and treat the common cold. The use of vitamin C instructions approved by drug regulatory agencies in the world does not cover the treatment of the common cold, but only for the prevention and treatment of scurvy, various acute and chronic infectious diseases and adjuvant treatment such as purpura, cardiogenic shock, chronic iron poisoning, idiopathic methemoglobinemia, liver cirrhosis, acute hepatitis and chronic poisoning of arsenic, mercury, lead, benzene and other chronic poisoning of the liver.

Improve immunity and prevent flu vaccination

Currently, only influenza (flu) is preventable. The only drugs approved in China to prevent influenza are two influenza vaccines and oseltamivir. Influenza vaccine is based on the situation of last year's global pandemic influenza, select several major influenza virus strains to make vaccines, these vaccines contain the characteristics of real influenza viruses, after advance infusion stimulates the human body to produce antibodies, when the real influenza virus invades the human body, antibodies will bind to the influenza virus to block infection. However, it is possible that this year's pandemic will have a different influenza virus than last year, which will lead to a failure of prevention. Therefore, the prevention ability of influenza vaccine is not 100%, but it is still recommended that everyone actively vaccinate against influenza to protect themselves and others. Oseltamivir can interrupt transmission of influenza A and B viruses, and early influenza (within 48 hours) can shorten the duration of illness, can be used for influenza prophylaxis in people over 13 years of age, but is not effective against other viruses (such as rhinovirus, adenovirus, coronavirus).

To prevent colds, stay in bed and get enough sleep. Also pay attention to indoor ventilation and warmth. Especially for office workers, the doors and windows are closed during the day, easy to breed a large number of germs, should open the window to ventilate, to ensure the freshness of the indoor air, you can also buy some white vinegar, steam in the room, can play a certain sterilization and disinfection effect. At the same time, due to the large temperature difference between morning and evening, the temperature difference between day and night is greater, so the elderly, children and the infirm should pay attention to keeping warm and ensure a warmer and more comfortable environment when sleeping. In terms of diet, we should drink more boiled water to make our body's metabolic capacity stronger and effectively prevent colds; Eat some moist and dry foods appropriately; Timely supplement with sufficient vitamins, such as eating radish, the carotene in it is good for preventing colds. For the general poor physique, improving physical fitness is an important way to prevent colds, under the premise of ensuring a healthy and reasonable diet, you can use your free time for physical exercise, mountaineering, running, and tai chi are all good choices. In addition, try to go to crowded public places as little as possible, prevent cross-infection, maintain good personal hygiene habits, wash hands frequently, and keep the environment clean.

Children under 2 years old have a cold, it is recommended not to use cold medicine, parents to accompany more, drink more milk and water. Children under 6 years of age should use cold medicines with caution and should not take multiple cold medicines in combination, as they may contain the same ingredients, resulting in an overdose. Young people have a cold, if it is not serious enough to affect work and study, try not to use cold medicine, rest and drink more water is the simplest and most effective treatment. If the cold symptoms are severe, be sure to seek medical attention promptly.